Understanding Education According to Experts

Definition of Education
Everyone basically has experienced education, but not everyone understands the meaning of the word education. Understanding education becomes important when we cannot deny that with the development of the times in the world of education which continues to change significantly so that many change the mindset of educators, from the ordinary and rigid mindset to become more modern.
This is very influential in the progress of education in Indonesia. It's just that, along with the progress of education sometimes the concept or understanding may become blurred.
Complementing this, education experts criticize the way they express educational concepts and theories, which are actually to achieve the true educational goals. Therefore we can look from the notion of education according to experts.
Definition of Education in General
Education can be interpreted as a method for developing skills, habits and attitudes that are expected to make a person better.

Understanding Education According to Experts
1. According to Aristotle
Education is a function of the State, and is conducted, primarily at least, for the ends of the State. State - the highest social institution which secures the highest goal or happiness of man. Education is preparation for some worthy activity. Education should be guided by legislation to make it correspond with the results of psychological analysis, and follow the gradual development of the bodily and mental faculties.
Meaning: Education is one of the functions of a country, and is carried out, especially at least, for the purpose of the State itself. The state is the highest social institution that secures the highest goal or human happiness. Education is preparation / provision for some activities / decent work. Education should be guided by the law to make it appropriate (correspondent) with the results of psychological analysis, and follow developments gradually, both physically (outwardly) and mentally (inner / soul).

Education is a means used to find the truth. While the method is dialectics.

3. According to the Act
UU SISDIKNAS No. 2 of 1989: Education is a conscious effort to prepare students through guidance, teaching, and training activities for their role in the future.
UU SISDIKNAS no. 20 of 2003: Education is a conscious and planned effort to create an atmosphere of learning and learning process so that students actively develop their potential to have spiritual spiritual strength, self-control, personality, intelligence, noble character, and the skills needed by themselves and the community.

4. According to the Big Dictionary
Education is the process of changing attitudes and behavior of a person or group of people in an effort to mature humans through teaching and training efforts; the process, manner and making of educating.

5. According to Etymology (Language) Education in Islam:
In Arabic Education: comes from the word Tarbiyah, with the verb Rabba which has the meaning of educating or caring. So Education in Islam is Guidance by educators on the physical, spiritual and intellectual development of students so that a good Muslim person can be formed.
In Greek: Education comes from the word Pedagogy, which is from the word "paid" meaning children and "agogos" means to guide. That is why the term pedagogy can be interpreted as "the science and art of teaching children (the art and science of teaching children).

6. According to Psychology
Education is covering all forms of activities that will facilitate in social life.

7. According to John Stuart Mill (British philosopher, 1806-1873 AD)
explains that Education includes everything that is done by someone for himself or done by others for him, with the aim of bringing him closer to the level of perfection.

8. According to H. Horne
is a continuous process of higher adjustments for human beings who have developed physically and mentally, who are free and conscious of God, as manifested in the natural, intellectual, emotional and human surroundings of humans.

9. According to John Dewey
argues that education is a process of renewing the meaning of experience, this may occur in ordinary association or association of adults with young people, it may also occur intentionally and institutionalized to produce social sustainability. This process involves the supervision and development of the minors and the group in which they live.

10. According to Edgar Dalle
that Education is a conscious effort made by the family, community, and government through the activities of guidance, teaching, and training, which take place at school and outside the school for life to prepare students to be able to play a role in various environments on a permanent basis for a period of time will come.

11. According to Plato
Education is something that can help the individual's development of body and mind with something that can enable the achievement of perfection. According to Plato education is planned and programmed into three stages with an age level, the first stage is education given to students for up to twenty years; and the second stage, from the age of twenty years to thirty years; while the third stage, from thirty years to forty years old.

12. According to Rocky Gerung
Education is a war on ignorance.

He said education is a demand in the lives of children. The point is that education leads to all the forces that exist in nature so that students as human beings and members of society can achieve high safety and happiness in life.

14. According to Muhibbin Syah, 2010: 10
Education comes from the word "educate", then this word gets the prefix "me" so it becomes "educate" meaning, nurturing and giving training. In maintaining and providing training, teachings, guidance and leadership are needed regarding morals and intelligence of the mind.

15. According to Soekidjo Notoatmodjo, 2003: 16
defining in general "Education is any planned effort to influence other people whether individuals, groups, or the community so that they do what is expected by education practitioners."

Definition of the Earth Revolution

As a result of the Earth Revolution
Besides rotating the Earth's axis, the Earth also made a revolutionary movement around the Sun. The motion of the Earth Revolution is the event of an object moving around the center of a particular object due to gravity. The movement of the Earth circulates around the Sun its path is not circular, but rather oval. Copernicus was the first to suggest that the Earth rotates on its axis once rounds in a day and the Earth moves around the Sun once a year.

Definition of the Earth Revolution
The Earth Revolution is the circulation of the earth around the sun. The earth's revolution is the result of a tug of war between the gravitational force of the sun and the gravitational force of the earth, in addition to the rotation of the earth on its axis or called the rotation of the earth.
When the revolution of the earth in one circle around the sun is 365¼ days. The earth evolved not perpendicular to the ecliptic plane but tilted in the same direction to form an angle of 23.50 to the sun, this angle was measured from an imaginary line connecting the north pole and south pole called the axis of rotation.

As a result of the Earth Revolution
Change in Season
The northern and southern hemisphere experiences four seasons. The four seasons are spring, summer, autumn, and winter. The following is a season table for specific times and regions in the hemisphere.

Seasons in the northern hemisphere
Spring: March 21 to June 21
Summer: June 21 to September 23
Autumn: September 23 - December 22
Winter: December 22 - March 21
The seasons are divided by the earth

Spring: September 23 to December 22
Summer: December 22 to March 21
Autumn: March 21 to June 22
Winter: June 21 - September 23
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The Difference Between Day and Night Time
The Difference Between Day and Night Time
Between March 21 and September 23
The north pole approaches the sun, while the south pole away from the sun.
The northern hemisphere receives more sun than the southern hemisphere.
The length of the day in the northern hemisphere is longer than in the southern hemisphere.
There are areas around the north pole that experience 24-hour day and there are areas around the south pole that experience 24-hour nights.
Between September 23 and March 21
The south pole is closer to the sun, while the north pole is closer to the sun.
The southern hemisphere receives more sun than the northern hemisphere.
The length of the day in the southern hemisphere is longer than the northern hemisphere.
There are areas around the north pole that experience 24-hour nights and there are areas around the south pole that experience 24-hour day.
On March 21 and December 23
The north pole and south pole are the same distance to the sun.
The northern hemisphere and the southern hemisphere receive as much sun.
The length of day and night are the same in all parts of the earth.
In the equator the sun seems to pass directly above the head.

Pseudo Motion of the Sun.
Shifting the sun's position towards the northern hemisphere (December 22 to June 21) and the shifting position of the sun from the northern hemisphere to the southern hemisphere (June 21 to December 21) is called the daily apparent motion of the sun. So called because the sun is actually not moving. That motion is due to the earth's revolution with a tilted rotation axis.
Visible constellations that differ from month to month
The constellations are the arrangement of stars that appear from the earth to form certain patterns. The stars forming a constellation are actually not in a close location. Because the location of the stars is very far away, so when observed from the earth as if they appear close together. The constellations that we know include Aquarius, Pisces, Gemini, Scorpio, Leo, and others.
When the earth is to the east of the sun, we can only see stars that are to the east of the sun. When the earth is north of the sun, we can only see stars that are north of the sun. As a result of the earth's revolution, the stars that appear from the earth are always changing.

Gregorian calendar
Based on the division of longitude, namely the west longitude and east longitude, the international boundary limit is longitude 180o, consequently if the east part of the 180o longitude is on the 15th, then in the western hemisphere the 180o longitude is still the 14th, as if it jumped one day. The Islamic calendar count is based on the time of the earth's revolution, where one year is 365 ¼ days.
The first Islamic calendar used was the Julius Caesar calendar or the Julian calendar. The Julian calendar is based on the interval between one spring and the next spring in the northern hemisphere. This time interval is exactly 365,242 days or 365 days 5 hours 48 minutes 46 seconds. Julius Caesar set the calendar calculation as follows.
The length of time in a year is 365 days
To accommodate excess ¼ days in each year, the length of one year is extended by 1 day to 366 days every four years. One day is added in February. Longer years a day are called leap years
To make it easier to remember, then chosen as a leap year is a year that runs out in four. Examples are 1984,2000, and others.

Earth Revolution
Earth's Rotation and Revolutionary Movement
Earth is a planet, in order the planets closest to the sun are Mercury, Venus, Earth Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune and Pluto. The earth is circulating according to its source with a rotation time of 27.9 hours and the distance of the earth's sun ± 150 million km.
The motion of the earth's rotation will affect weather conditions on the surface of the earth, for example, occurs day and night, with a change of time of ± 12 hours, for areas between 23.50 North and South latitudes, and ± 6 months for areas around the North and South Poles, from March 21 to September 21 in the North Pole experiencing daytime and in the South Pole experiencing night, from September 21 to March 21 in the North Pole experiencing the night and in the South Pole experiencing daytime.
The earth circulates around the sun with a revolution of 365.25 days (1 year) in an anti clockwise direction (counterclockwise) and with an average circulation speed of 18.5 miles / sec. Because the ecliptic is elliptical, the sun is one of its central points, so the distance of the earth's sun is not always fixed but it changes.
The Perihelium Point is where the earth circulates closest to the sun, occurring on December 21st. Aphelium Point is the point where the earth is farthest from the sun, occurring on June 21st. Because the earth's revolution and the tilt of the earth's axis towards the ecliptic amounted to 66.50 resulting in seasonal changes in the region which is located between 23.50 North to the North Pole and 23.50 South to the South Pole.

Class Social Interaction

Class Social Interaction
In the class social interaction takes place; there are co-operations, competition, opposition, accommodation. Opposition can lead to physical clashes. As a teacher, you try to reconcile. And they finally made peace, but peace seemed to be only a solution that was received for a while.
In the eyes of the community, the teacher is a person who educates, teaches, and provides a number of knowledge to students at school, mosque, at home, or elsewhere. Teachers assume responsibility not only for the walls of the school, but also outside the school. The teacher provides guidance not only in groups, but also individually. This inevitably requires that teachers always pay attention to the behavior, attitudes, and actions of their students, not only in the school environment but outside the school though.

Social Competence Function
The community in the current development process considers the teacher as a member of the community who has the ability, sufficiently broad skills, who want to actively participate in the development process. Teachers are expected to be a pioneer in the implementation of development. Teachers need to realize their position in the midst of the community plays a very important role, namely as;
1) motivator and innovator in educational development,
2) pioneers and pioneers of education.
3) researchers and reviewers of science,
4) devotion.
Legal Basis for Teacher Competency Standards
The laws and regulations used as the legal basis for setting Teacher Competency Standards are:

Law Number 20 Year 2003 concerning the National Education System.
Law Number 25 of 2000 concerning the National Development Program.
Law Number 22 of 1999 concerning Regional Government (Statute Book Number 60 of 1999, Supplement to Statute Book Number 3839);
Law Number 25 of 2000 concerning the National Development Program (Propenas) of 2000-2004 (State Gazette of 2000 Number 206)
Government Regulation Number 38 of 1992 concerning Educational Personnel (State Gazette of 1992 Number 68, Supplement to State Gazette Number 3484) as amended by Government Regulation Number 39 of 2000 (State Gazette of 2000 Number 91, Supplement to State Gazette Number 3974)
Government Regulation Number 25 of 2000 concerning Government Authority and Provincial Authority as an Autonomous Region (Statute Book Number 54 of 2000, Supplement to Statute Book Number 3952);
Republic of Indonesia Government Regulation Number 38 of 1992 concerning Education Personnel as amended by Government Regulation Number 39 of 2000.
Decree of the State Minister for Administrative Reform Number 84/1993 concerning Teacher Functional Position and Credit Scores.
Joint Decree of the Minister of Education and Culture and Head of the Personnel Administration Agency Number: 0433 / P / 1993, Number: 25 of 1993 concerning Guidelines for Implementing the Teacher's Functional Position and Credit Score.
Decree of the Minister of Education and Culture of the Republic of Indonesia Number: 025 / O / 1995 regarding the Technical Guidelines for the Implementation of the Teacher's Functional Position and Credit Score.
Decree of the Minister of National Education of the Republic of Indonesia No: 031 / O / 2002 concerning the Organization and Work Procedures of the Directorate General of Primary and Secondary Education.

Objectives and Benefits of Teacher Competency Standards
The purpose of the Teacher Competency Standards is as a guarantee of the mastery of the minimum level of competence by the teacher so that the person can carry out their duties professionally, can be fostered effectively and efficiently and can serve the parties concerned with the learning process, as well as possible in accordance with their field of work.
The benefits of the compilation of Teacher Competency Standards are as a reference for the implementation of competency tests, the implementation of education and training, as well as references for interested parties in teacher competence to conduct evaluations, development of teaching materials and so on for teaching staff.

Scope of Social Competence

Scope of Social Competence
Social competence in this learning activity is closely related to the ability of teachers to communicate with the community around the school and the community where the teacher lives so that the role and way of the teacher communicating in the community is expected to have its own characteristics which are more or less different from other people who are not teachers. The mission carried by the teacher is a humanitarian mission. Teaching and educating is the task of humanity. Teachers must have social competence because the teacher is a contemporary lecturer.
Based on the understanding and scope of social competence as mentioned above, the core of social competence is the ability of teachers to do social interaction through communication. Teachers are required to communicate with fellow teachers, students, parents of students, and the surrounding community, etc. So the teacher is required to know many social groups such as play groups, cooperation groups, religious scholars, recitation, youth, etc.
The understanding of social interaction is very useful in paying attention and learning various community problems, including learning problems. Without social interaction, it is possible to have a life together that is manifested in association. Life is true when members of the community work together, talk to each other, share experiences, and even compete with one another. Social interaction is the basis of social processes as an understanding that refers to dynamic social relationships. In general it can be said that, for general social processes are social interactions. And social interaction is the main condition for the occurrence of social activities.
A social interaction is not possible without social contact and communication. When we talk to someone, it means there is contact between us and that person. Speaking can be directly, can be by telephone, letter, radio, and so on. In family life at home, social contact almost always occurs among fellow family members. Social contact in this family can occur between a member and some or all other family members, as well as between a community member and several or many other community members. In social life, contact can also be found between one group and another group of people.

In architecture in Indonesia (Irawan Maryono and L. Edison Silalahi, 1985) stated that there are four forms of social interaction, among others;
1) cooperation (co-operation),
2) competition (competition),
3) contention,
4) accommodation. Co-operation is cooperation between individuals or between groups of people in society to achieve certain goals together as well. Other forms that can be classified as cooperation include assimilation and alkuluration in culture.

Assimilation is a social process or community process towards a positive change because of the fusion of cultures between groups to form a new culture. While alkultura is the merging of two or more elements of culture into a new culture, but the original element is not lost. Competition is one form of social interaction carried out between individuals or between groups of people in society.
They compete to obtain or achieve certain goals through areas of life without violence and without threats. While conflict is one form of social interaction carried out between individuals or between groups of people in society in order to achieve certain goals with violence and threats. Accommodation as a form of social interaction is in balance and each group of people merges to form new norms, rules, values (customs) that are applicable and agreed upon in the local community. The purpose of this accommodation include the following.
Reducing conflict between people or groups of people in society due to differences in understanding.
Prevent the explosion or emergence of a conflict for a while.
As a vehicle for cooperation between people or groups of people in society.
Encourage the fusion of (intermingling) between separate or conflicting groups.
Social interaction through the learning process is largely determined by the teacher, students, all education staff, parents, and the community. In the conversation between the teacher and students or with parents students may occur reciprocally. In the most important social interaction is to build communication, namely that someone gives an interpretation of the behavior of others, whether in the form of speech, gestures, or attitudes.

Definition of Social Competence

Definition of Social Competence
Social competence is the ability of teachers to adjust to the demands of work in the surrounding environment when carrying out their duties as a teacher. The role that teachers carry in society is different from other professions. Therefore, the attention given by the community towards teachers is different and there is a specificity especially the demand to be a pioneer of development in the area where the teacher lives.
Some social competencies that teachers need to have, among others; communicating skillfully, being sympathetic, being able to work with the Board of Education / School Committee, being good at getting along with colleagues and educational partners, and understanding the world around them (the environment).

What is meant by social competence in Government Regulation Number 19 of 2005, in article 28, paragraph 3, is the ability of educators as part of the community to communicate and socialize effectively with students, fellow educators, education personnel, parents / guardians of students and surrounding communities. According to Achmad Sanusi (1991), social competence includes the ability to adapt to the demands of work and the environment when carrying out their duties as a teacher.

Professional teachers should be able to assume and carry out responsibilities as a teacher to students, parents, the community, nation, state and religion. Independent personal responsibility that is able to understand themselves, manage themselves, control themselves, and appreciate and develop themselves. Social responsibility is realized through the competence of teachers in understanding themselves as an inseparable part of the social environment and having the ability to interact socially.
Intellectual responsibility is realized through the mastery of various sets of knowledge and skills needed to support their duties. Spiritual and moral responsibility is manifested through the appearance of the teacher as a religious being whose behavior always does not deviate from religious and moral norms.

According to Djaman Satori (2007), social competence is as follows.
Skillfully communicate with students and parents of students.
Be sympathetic.
Can work together with the Board of Education / School Committee.
Good at hanging out with coworkers and educational partners.
Understand the world around it (the environment).
Meanwhile, according to Mukhlas Samani (2008: 6) what is meant by social competence is the ability of individuals as part of society that includes the ability to;
Communicate verbally, in writing, and / or cues.
Using communication and information technology functionally.
Associate effectively with students, fellow educators, educational staff, leaders of educational units, parents / guardians of students.
Associate politely with the surrounding community by heeding the norms and value systems that apply.
Apply the principles of true brotherhood and the spirit of togetherness.

Teacher Competency Standards Formulation
It has been stated that Teacher Competency Standards include 3 (three) competency components and each competency component consists of several competency units. Overall Teacher Competency Standards are as follows:

Competency Components of Learning Management and Educational Insights, which consist of,
Learning Management Competency Sub Components:

Develop learning plans
Carry out learning
Assess student learning achievement.
Carry out the follow-up of students' learning achievement assessment results.

Sub Components of Educational Insights Competency:
Understanding educational foundation
Understanding education policy
Understand the level of student development
Understanding the learning approach that fits the learning material
Implement cooperation in work
Utilizing the progress of science and technology in education
Academic / Vocational Competency Components, consisting of:
Mastering knowledge and skills according to learning material
Professional Development Competency Components consist of:
Develop a profession.

Teacher Competency Indicator
To get a more measurable picture of grading each competency, it is necessary to determine the performance of each competency. Competency performance is seen in the form of indicators, as shown in the appendix.

Definition of Professional Competence

Definition of Professional Competence
Teacher Professional Competence Is an ability that must be possessed by teachers in planning and implementing the learning process. The teacher has the task to direct student learning activities to achieve learning objectives, for that teachers are required to be able to deliver learning material. The teacher must always update, and master the subject matter presented. Self preparation about the material is sought by finding information through various sources such as reading the latest books, accessing from the internet, always following the latest developments and progress on the material presented.
Professional teachers are teachers who have the competencies required to carry out educational and teaching tasks. Competence here includes knowledge, attitudes, and professional skills, both personal, social, and academic. Professional competence is one of the basic abilities that a teacher must possess. In Government Regulation No. 19 of 2005, in article 28 paragraph 3 what is meant by professional competence is the ability to master extensive and in-depth learning material that enables it to guide students to meet the competency standards set out in the National Education Standards. Meanwhile, according to Mukhlas Samani (2008: 6) what is meant by professional competence is the ability to master the knowledge of the fields of science, technology and / or art which he covers mastery of;
Personality competencies or abilities are abilities that teachers must have with regard to aspects of Professional Competence are:
In delivering learning, the teacher has a role and task as a source of material that is never dry in managing the learning process. Teaching activities must be welcomed by students as an art of managing the learning process obtained through practice, experience, and a willingness to learn that never breaks.
In carrying out the learning process, student activity must always be created and go on by using appropriate teaching methods and strategies. The teacher creates an atmosphere that can encourage students to ask questions, observe, conduct experiments, and find facts and concepts that are true. Therefore teachers must conduct learning activities using multimedia, so that an atmosphere of learning while working, learning while listening, and learning while playing, according to the context of the material.
In terms of evaluation, in theory and practice, the teacher must be able to carry out according to the objectives he wants to be measured. The type of test used to measure learning outcomes must be true and correct. It is also expected that the teacher can arrange the items correctly, so that the tests used can motivate students to learn.

The abilities that teachers must have in the learning process can be observed from the professional aspects are:
Mastering the material, structure, concepts, and scientific mindset that supports the subjects being taught.
Mastering Competency Standards and Competencies Basic subjects / areas of development that are supported.
Developing subject matter that is taught creatively. Develop professionalism in a sustainable manner by taking reflective action.
Utilizing information and communication technology to communicate and develop themselves.
Professional competence is the ability of teachers to master the knowledge of the fields of science, technology, and / or art that at least covers mastery of (1) subject matter broadly and deeply according to the standard content of the educational unit program, subjects, and / or groups of subjects they support , and (2) concepts and methods of scientific discipline, technology, or arts that are conceptually relevant to or coherent with the program of educational units, subjects, and / or groups of subjects that he is capable of.

Scope of Personality Competence

Scope of Personality Competence
Personality competence is universal, which means that the teacher must have it in carrying out its function as an individual (personal) being which defends the success of the teacher's assignment. Teacher personality competencies according to Sanusi (1991) include the following matters.
A positive attitude towards the whole task as a teacher, and to the overall situation of education and its elements.
Understanding, appreciation and performance of values that should be adopted by a teacher.
Assessment of efforts to make themselves as role models and examples for their students
According Djam'an, dk 2007; 2-6-2.10) personality competencies that need to be possessed by teachers are as follows

The teacher as a human being created by God Almighty is obliged to increase his faith and piety to God, in line with his religion and beliefs.
The teacher has advantages compared to the others. Therefore it is necessary to develop a sense of self-confidence and responsibility that he has great potential in the field of teacher training and is able to resolve the various problems he faces.
Teachers are always dealing with different and diverse communities that are unique to students and their communities, so teachers need to develop an attitude of tolerance and tolerance in addressing the differences they encounter in interacting with students and the community.

Teachers are expected to be a facilitator in fostering a culture of critical thinking in society, accepting each other's differences of opinion and agreeing to achieve common goals, it requires a teacher to be democratic in conveying and accepting ideas about the problems around him so that teachers become open and not close themselves from things that are outside him.
Being a good teacher is not as easy as turning the palm of the hand, it requires patience in achieving it. Teachers are expected to be patient in the sense of diligent and tenacious carrying out the educational process can not immediately be felt at that time but requires a long process.

The teacher is able to develop himself in accordance with renewal, both in his professional field and in his specialization.
Teachers can live up to the goals of education both nationally, institutionally, curricularly to the objectives of the subjects they provide.
Human relations, namely the ability of teachers to be able to relate to others on the basis of mutual respect between one another.
Self-understanding, namely the ability to understand various aspects of himself both positive and negative.
Teachers are able to make changes in developing the profession as innovators and creators.